"To forget one's ancestors is to be a brook without a source, a tree without a root."
(An old Chinese proverb.)

VOL. L, NO. 1 MARCH 2002  WHOLE NO. 197a

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[Note:  Here appears a photograph, beneath which is the following caption:]


Daughter of Nathan B. and Lucinda (Hale) Sparks; Married John Norton

(See page 5675)


The Sparks Quarterly, published by the Sparks Family Association
John K. Carmichael, Jr., President, 3408 N. Rosewood Ave., Muncie, Indiana (47304-2025)

A. Harold Sparks, Vice President, 500 1st St. N., #303, Newton, Iowa (50208-3104)

Russell E. Bidlack, Secretary-Treasurer & Editor, 1709 Cherokee Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan (48104-4498)

The Sparks Family Association was founded in March 1953 as a non-profit organization devoted to assembling and preserving genealogical and historical materials pertaining to the Sparks Family in America. By this term is meant descendants of immigrants to the United States during the past four centuries who have spelled their name Sparks, Spark, or Sparkes.  There have been scores of such individuals, most of whom were natives of the British Isles.  Their relationship to each other, however, can rarely be discovered, nor can the exact locations of their former homes.  Surnames did not become common in Europe before the fifteenth century.  An essay on the derivation of the name Sparks appeared in the second issue of the SPARKS QUARTERLY (June 1953.)

The Sparks Family Association is exempt from federal tax under the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, Section 503(c) (7). Membership in the Association is open to all persons connected with the Sparks Family, whether by blood, marriage, or adoption, and to persons interested in genealogical research. Membership falls into three classes: Active, Contributing, and Sustaining. Active Membership dues are $10.00 per year; Contributing Membership dues are $15.00 per year; and Sustaining Membership dues are any amount over $15.00 that the member wishes to con tribute for the support of the Association. All members receive The Sparks Quarterly as it is published in March, June, September, and December. Back issues are kept in print and are available for $3.00 each to members of the Association and for $4.00 each to non-members. The first issue of the Quarterly was published in March 1953. Nine quinquennial indexes have been published for the years 1953-57; 1958-62; 1963-67; 1968-72; 1973-77; 1978-82; 1983-87; 1988-92; and 1993-97. Each index is available for $5.00.

A complete file of all back issues of the Quarterly, including the nine indexes, may be purchased for $360.00. The forty-nine years of the Quarterly (1953-2001) comprise a total of 5634 pages of Sparks Family History. The nine indexes (1953-97) amount to over 900 additional pages. An index for 1998-2002 will be published in 2003.  A table of contents is also available for $5.00. Comprising 77 pages, this lists the articles and collections of data appearing in the Quarterly between 1953 and 2001; it is updated at the end of each year. The International Standard Serial Number that has been assigned to the Quarterly is ISSN 0561-5445.

Orders for individual back issues of the Quarterly and the table of contents, as well as for a complete file, should be sent to the editor, Russell E. Bidlack, 1709 Cherokee Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48104-4498. His telephone number is 734-662-5080; he has no E-Mail address.




[Editor's Note: The following biographical sketch of Dr. George Harrison Sparks appeared on page 432 of Vol. IV of the History of Virginia published in 1924 at New York and Chicago by the American Historical Society. Through the years since this publication appeared, descendants in the branch of the Sparks family of which Dr. Sparks was a member, have been confused in attempting to connect with the ancestral line claimed for him in this biographical sketch. We hope to correct this problem in the Editor's Continued Note following the text of this record.]

George Harrison Sparks, M.D.

One of Culpeper County's ablest physicians and surgeons is Dr. George Harrison Sparks, now of Brandy, and for many years engaged in practice at Mitchell's Station [in Culpeper County, Virginia.]

Doctor Sparks was born in Madison County, Virginia, November 11, 1869, son of Robert W. and Mamie C. (Harrison) Sparks. He has distinguished ancestry on both sides. He is a descendant of John Sparks, who came to the American colonies as a captain in the British troops under the com mand of General Braddock, participating in the ill fated expedition against the French and Indians into Western Pennsylvania, where Braddock's army suffered a memorable defeat. Capt. John Sparks was wounded in that battle by an Indian arrow, and subsequently King George granted him a tract of land in Madison County. The descent to Doctor Sparks is through his son Thomas Sparks, and Doctor Sparks owns a flint lock gun once possessed by Thomas Sparks. Harry Sparks, a son of Thomas Sparks, and the great-grandfather of Doctor Sparks, enlisted as a soldier in the War of 1812, but saw no active service. Doctor Sparks' paternal grandfather died when young. The grandmother, Fannie (Brown) Sparks, remained a widow for seventy years. She was a woman of great strength of charac ter, and in her old age she gained her second sight, enabling her to dis pense with glasses, and then took up the study of Latin and higher mathematics, including trigonometry, in order that she might assist her grandson, the present Doctor Sparks, with his studies.

In the maternal line Doctor Sparks is a descendant of a Harrison, who according to tradition was born at Berkeley, Isle of Wight County, Virginia, and received a large grant of land from the Crowri for distinguished military service. His great-grandmother, Hannah (Hume) Sparks, was a direct descendant of George Hume, who came from Scotland and for many years was a leading merchant of Fredericksburg. Hannah Hume was the mother of eighteen children, six daughters and twelve sons. All the sons but three left Virginia and went West, to Mississippi, Missouri, Kentucky, and other states. Doctor Sparks' grandfather, George Harrison, was associated with Mr. Meems in the mercantile business at Madison Court House at Lynchburg. George Harrison married Miss Fouche, of a distinguished French family with many connections in Virginia.

The father of Doctor Sparks, Robert W. Sparks, was a soldier of the Confederacy, in Company A, Seventh Virginia Regiment, Pickett's Division. After the war he became a farmer and merchant, and was also sheriff of Madison County. He was a Mason and a member of the Baptist Church.

Dr. George Harrison Sparks received his early education in Locust Dale Academy, attended Baltimore College and graduated in 1900 from the


GEORGE HARRISON SPARKS, M.D. (1869-1925), continued:

Medical College of Virginia. In the same year he began his practice at Mitchell's Station in Culpeper County, and remained there until 1922.He also owned a farm, and after selling it he moved into his new modern home at Brandy.

In addition to his professional work Doctor Sparks has been actively identified with business and public affairs in Culpeper County. For eight years he was a member of the County Board of Supervisors, and he also has served as coroner and school trustee. He is a member of the Virginia Medical Society, the Piedmont Medical Society and the Amer ican Medical Association. He is a director of the Culpeper National Bank, a stockholder in the Culpeper Milling Company, a member of the Presby terian Church, and a member of the County Democratic Committee.

On December 20, 1905, Doctor Sparks married Miss Daisy L. Hoffman, daughter of F. W. and Anna Hoffman. Her father served in the Confed erate army and after the war was a merchant and farmer. Doctor and Mrs. Sparks have three children, Mary Katherine, George Harrison, Jr., and Robert E. Lee Sparks.

[Editor's Note, Continued: Many years ago, a friend of the editor, John Frederick Dorman, kindly copied for us the engravings he found on some Sparks gravestones in a cemetery at Orange, the seat of justice of Orange County, Virginia. It was there that Dr. George Harrison Sparks was buried. The in scription on his stone is simply: "George H. Sparks, M.D. / 1869-1925."  From this we know that Dr. Sparks died the year following the publication of the above biographical sketch. His grave is in the same lot as that of his parents.

[As stated in the above biographical sketch of Dr. George Harrison Sparks of Bandy, Culpeper County, Virginia, published in 1924, it was claimed that Dr. Sparks then owned a "flint lock gun" that had belonged to his ancestor, Thomas Sparks. This Thomas Sparks was Dr. Sparks's great-great-great-grandfather; he had been born about 1715 and died in Madison County, Virginia, in 1787. In the Sparks Quarterly of June 1956, Whole No. 14, can be found a fairly detailed article on Thomas Sparks, pp.132-37. Our initial information pertaining to him was found in an article by a prominent genealogist of his time, William B. Newman, published in Tyler's Quarterly Historical and Genealogical Magazine of July 1931 (Vol. XIII, No. 1). Mr. Newman gave his article the title: "Towles and Clark Families," but because the Sparks family of Madison County, Virginia, was closely related to the Towles and Clark families of the Madison County, area, Newman included a record of his research on the Sparkses in his article. Our article appearing in the June 1956 issue of the QUARTERLY, cited above, was based on the Newman article, but was supplemented with the results of our further research.

[From the number of errors regarding Dr. Sparks's ancestry, to be pointed out below, leads us to believe that he was not, himself, the author of the biographical sketch published in 1924. An editor may have interviewed him and later confused the information provided him. The claim made that Thomas Sparks (ca.1715-1787) was the son of a Capt. John Sparks who had been a British soldier in the army of General Braddock, is simply not possible. The memorable defeat and death of General Braddock took place in 1755; General Braddock died at the time of his army's defeat on July 9, 1755. Thomas Sparks had been born some forty years prior to the Braddock expedition. There was no grant of land in Madison County, Virginia, by King George to a British soldier named Sparks. Until 1792/3, Madison County was part of Culpeper County.


GEORGE HARRISON SPARKS, M.D. (1869-1925), continued:

[The confusion regarding the wounded British soldier named John Sparks being the father of Thomas Sparks may have arisen because, indeed, the father of Thomas Sparks was probably a John Sparks, whose wife is known to have been Mary. This relationship was stated as fact by William B. Newman in his 1931 article cited above, but we have not found a primary source to provide proof. (See our discussion of John and Mary Sparks of Virginia in the June 1956 issue of the QUARTERLY.)

[Our earliest record of Thomas Sparks was his purchase (or lease) of a 200-acre tract of land on May 25, 1737, from Richard Mauldin in Orange County, Virginia. This land was described as located on the Robinson River and was located in that part of Orange County that was cut off in 1748 to form Culpeper County. When Madison County was created from part of Culpeper County in 1792/3, the children of Thomas Sparks found themselves to be in the new county, even though they had not moved there.

[Thomas Sparks was unmarried when he purchased land in what would become Madison County, but in the early 1740s he was married to Mary Towles (born November 1, 1723), who was a daughter of Stokeley and Anne (Vallott) Towles. Information regarding the Towles family was included in the June 1956 issue of the QUARTERLY, p.132. Also included in that article, were the will and estate papers of Thomas Sparks filed after his death in 1787. In his will, Thomas Sparks had named his and Mary's nine children as follows:

1. John Sparks, born about 1745, died 1803. He was married to Phoebe Smith.
2. Ann Sparks, born about 1747.
3. Humphrey Sparks, born about 1749. He was married to Milly Nalle.
4. Lucy Sparks, born about 1751. She was married to James Kilby.
5. Henry Sparks, born June 16, 1753. He was married to Lucy Clark.
6. Thomas Sparks, born about 1755.
7. Mary Sparks, born 1757. She was married, first, to her cousin, Russell Vawter, and, second, to James Smith.
8. Frankey Sparks, born about 1759.
9. Mildred Sparks, born about 1761.

[In the June 1956 issue of the SPARKS QUARTERLY, cited earlier, we gave the in formation we then had regarding each of these children. Our statement (p.136) that the daughter named Ann had been married to Jacob Aylor was corrected in the September 2001, No. 195, issue of the QUARTERLY in an article by Craig M. Kilby (pp.5571-72). Mr. Kilby there presented proof that Ann, a nickname for Nancy Sparks, had been married to Jarvis Smith, not to Jacob Aylor. Mr. Kilby also provided proof that Thomas Sparks's daughter called "Frankey" in his will was Frances Sparks, and it was she, not her sister, Ann, who was married to Jacob Aylor.

[After identifying Thomas Sparks as the ancestor of Dr. George Harrison Sparks, the writer of the Doctor's biographical sketch in 1924, skipped a generation in tracing his ancestral line. Harry Sparks, called a son of Thomas Sparks in the 1924 biographical sketch, was actually a grandson of Thomas Sparks. The father of Harry Sparks (a nickname for Henry Sparks) was John Sparks, son of Thomas and Mary (Towles) Sparks. Born about 1745 in Culpeper (now Madison) County, Virginia, John Sparks was married to Phoebe Smith about 1765. John and Phoebe lived, died, and were buried on a farm 1½ miles north of Oak Park in Madison County; John died in 1803, Phoebe in 1814. They were the parents of eight children:

     1 Nancy Sparks, born in 1767; she was married to Samuel Wilhoit.

     2. Frances ("Fanny) Sparks, born about 1771; she was married to William Hume.


GEORGE HARRISON SPARKS, M.D. (1869-1925), continued:

[Children of John and Phoebe (Smith) Sparks, continued:

3. Henry Sparks, born January 2, 1773; he was married to Hannah Hume, daughter of Charles and Hannah (Jones) Hume.
4. Thomas Sparks, born between 1775 and 1780; he was married in 1794 to Susanna ("Susan") Fishback, daughter of Harmon and Christine (Hoffman) Fishback.
5. Robert Sparks, born February 15, 1777; he was married to Isabella Ford. (On page 851 of the QUARTERLY, we mistakenly gave Robert as the second child of John and Phoebe Sparks, believing then that he had been born about 1769.)
6. Mary ("Polly") M. Sparks, born about 1780; she was married to her cousin, Jasper Sparks, son of William and Elizabeth Sparks, on October
24, 1803.
7. Susan (or Susanna) Sparks.
8. Elizabeth Sparks (called Betsy Velotty Sparks in her mother's will); she was married to Merry Aylore (sic).

[In his will, dated January 9, 1803, and probated on September 22, 1803, John Sparks prescribed that his wife, Phoebe, should control all of his property during her lifetime, and at her death, it should be divided equally among their children. He mentioned by name only one of his children, however, that being Nancy Wilhoit; he stated that if Nancy had no heirs, her share should be divided among his other children. (See Madison Will Book 1, p.418.) Phoebe Sparks made her will on Jan uary 10, 1814; it was probated on January 26, 1815. (See Madison County, Will Book 3, p.83.) She apparently had previously given the six older children their shares because she left only $30.00 to be divided among them. To her two younger children, however, she provided as follows:

... To my daughters Susannah Sparks and Betsy Velotty Sparks, and their heirs, two Negroes named Ben and Sottee; also one mare and colt by name of Pickle; also two feather beds; beadsteads (sic) standing upstairs in the large room; two couterpanes; seven bed quilts; eight sheets; 2 black walnut chests standing in the same room; also two walnut dressing tables with covers; six flat back chairs...

[Phoebe Sparks named her sons, Henry and Thomas Sparks, as the executors of her will; her witnesses were: Colman J. Brown, Aaron Carpenter, Joseph Swindle, and James Hume.

[As seen above, the third child of John and Phoebe Sparks was Henry Sparks, called by his nickname "Harry" in the biographical sketch of Dr. George Harrison Sparks. His marriage to Hannah Hume was on March 10, 1803, the same year that his father died. Hannah Hume was a daughter of Charles and Hannah (Jones) Hume. Henry (or "Harry") and Hannah (Hume) Sparks, were identified correctly as the great-grandparents of Dr. Sparks in the 1924 sketch. An article devoted to Henry Sparks (1773-1860) appeared in the SPARKS QUARTERLY of December 1964, Whole No. 48, beginning on page 850. There we noted that Henry's wife, Hannah Hume, had been born on July 12, 1785, and died on July 30, 1861. Henry had died a year earlier, on January 28, 1860.

[The 1924 biographical sketch devoted to Dr. Sparks indicated that Henry and Hannah (Hume) Sparks had been the parents of 18 children. On page 851 of the December 1964 QUARTERLY, we listed 13 children, a more likely number. We repeat this list here:


GEORGE HARRISON SPARKS, M.D. (1869-1925), continued:

    [Children of Henry and Hannah (Hume) Sparks:

1. John J. Sparks, born December 19, 1803; died July 7, 1808.
2. Frances Sparks, born March 21, 1805; she was married to William Pratt; she died on August 27, 1830.
3. Charles S. Sparks, born January 2, 1807; he was married to Frances S. Brown; he died April 28, 1896.
4. Joseph S. Sparks, born October 12, 1808; he was married (first) to Harriet Jones, and (second) to Harriet M. Tinsley.
5. Robert Walker Sparks, born September 15, 1810. (See below).
6. Moses Samuel Wilhoit Sparks, born September 25, 1812; he was married to Elizabeth Ann Yeger (or Yearger); he died November 17, 1883.
7. Martha E. A. Sparks, born November 20, 1814; she was married to Arthur Lewis; she died October 18, 1847.
8. Benjamin Hume Sparks, born October 7, 1816; he was married to Martha Brown; he died August 3, 1914. (Photographs of Benjamin Hume Sparks and Martha (Brown) Sparks were published on the cover of the QUAR TERLY of December, 1964, No. 48.)
9. Henry T. Sparks, born February 25, 1821; he was married to Lucy O'Bannon; he died September 6, 1891.
10. Hannah J. Sparks, born February 25, 1821; she was married to Charles W. Tatum; she died September 2, 1901. She was a twin of William Thomas Sparks.
11. William Thomas Sparks, born February 25, 1821; he was married to Maria Elizabeth Fry; he died February 8, 1880; he was a twin of Hannah J. Sparks.
12. James M. Sparks, born May 4, 1823; he was married to Mary Wayland; he died November 16, 1898.
13. Susan C. Sparks, born February 3, 1826; she was married to Zephenia Butler; she died January 20, 1892.

[Additional information regarding the above thirteen children of Henry and Hannah (Hume) Sparks may be found on pages 850-60 of the December 1964 issue of the QUARTERLY.

[As seen above, the fifth of these 13 children of Henry and Hannah (Hume) Sparks was Robert Walker Sparks, born September 15, 1810. He was the grandfather of Dr. Sparks, and he did, indeed, die young, as stated in the 1824 sketch of the Doctor's life. Robert Walker Sparks died at the age of 30 on February 13, 1840, in Madison County. He had been married in November 1833 (the marriage bond was dated No vember 25, 1833) to Frances ("Fanny") Brown. She lived until October 26, 1895, in Madison County; her widowhood lasted 62 years, not 70 as stated in the 1924 sketch.

[Robert Walker and Frances (Brown) Sparks were the parents of three children:

1. Champ Comer Sparks, born December 31, 1835.
2. Bushrod H. Sparks, born February 9, 1837.
3. Robert Walker Sparks, Jr., born June 3, 1840.

[Robert Walker Sparks, Jr., born June 3, 1840, was married on October 21, 1868, in Madison County, Virginia, to Nannie Catherin Harrison, daughter of George W. Harrison and Fouche. (In the 1924 biographical sketch of their son, Dr. George Harrison Sparks, his mother's name appeared as "Mamie"; this was an error.) The graves of Robert W. and Nannie (Harrison) Sparks are in the same lot in the Orange, Virginia, Cemetery as that of their son. They share a gravestone with the inscription:


GEORGE HARRISON SPARKS, M.D. (1869-1925), continued:

[Gravestones in Orange, Virginia, Cemetery:

Robert W. Sparks / June 8, 1840 / Oct. 21, 1909 / Nannie Harrison / Wife of / Robert W. Sparks / Oct. 25, 1844 / April 20, 1916.

[Robert Walker Sparks, Jr. and his wife, Nannie Catherin (Harrison) Sparks, were the parents of the following children:

1. George Harrison Sparks, born November 11, 1869.
2. Fanny W. Sparks, born November 17, 1871.
3. Mary Somerville Sparks, born October 24, 1874.
4. Robert Walker Sparks, born March 23, 1877.
5. Thomas N. Sparks, born March 6, 1881.
6. Sally B. Sparks, born February 5, 1884.
7. Charles Frederick Sparks, born July 1, 1887.
8. Nannie H. Sparks, born August 5, 1889.

[The eldest child of Robert W. and Nannie (Harrison) Sparks was, of course, Dr. George Harrison Sparks (1869-1925) whose grave is near that of his parents in the Orange, Virginia, Cemetery. The graves of three other children of Robert W. and Nannie (Harrison) Sparks are in the same cemetery lot. As copied for us by John Frederick Dorman, their gravestones have the following inscriptions:

Mary Sparks / Hendrick / Oct. 24, 1874 / July 7, 1910 / Blessed are the / pure in heart. (Above the inscription is a coat of arms in metal with this inscription under it:) "In loving memory of / Mary Somerville Sparks Hendrick / Founder of Kappa Delta Sorority."

C. Frederick Sparks / July 1, 1887 / Oct. 21, 1909

                                                        Robert Walker                         Adelaide Bullock
                                                        1877 - 1948                                1900 - 1925

[Robert Walker Sparks, the fourth child of Robert Walker Sparks, Jr., was born on March 23, 1877, and died on May 17, 1948. He had been married to Adelaide Caroline Bullock in 1918. She had been born in 1900 and died on April 26, 1925. Adelaide was a daughter of New Bullock. They were the parents of three children:

1. Robert W. Sparks, IV, born March 12, 1920.
2. Thomas Newton Sparks, born October 16, 1921.
3. Edward Bullock Sparks, born April 12, 1925.

[Robert W. Sparks, IV, is a charter member of the Sparks Family Association.  He lives in Richmond, Virginia, with his wife, Elise (Moomaw) Sparks, who was born August 29, 1928; they were married in Roanoke, Virginia, on December 27, 1947. They are the parents of two children: Ruth Bowman Sparks, born March 6, 1953, and Mary Bob Sparks, born September 5, 1955.

[We published an article about Robert W. Sparks, IV, in the QUARTERLY of September 1995, No. 171, pp.4525-28. We included a current photograph of Mr. Sparks as well as one taken of him as an Army Captain in 1944, during the Battle of the Bulge. As the reader will note, Dr. George Harrison Sparks (1869-1925) was an uncle of Robert W. Sparks, IV.]




Compiled by Russell E. Bidlack

European settlement in what became South Carolina can be traced to 1671 when a group of Englishmen came to what they called Charles Town. They were soon joined along the Ashley River by Dutch families from New York and others directly from Holland. During the following century, settlers came from Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Switzerland, and Germany. It was in 1713 that southern Carolina was separated from North Carolina, and it was recognized as an English royal colony in 1723. South Carolina was the eighth state to enter the Union, in 1788.

In 1769, the province had been divided into seven judicial districts. By 1798, the nine districts then existing were divided into twenty-four, and further divisions brought the number to thirty by the time of the Civil War. In 1868, these "districts" were officially called counties. For the 1860 census, all census takers used the term "district," and we do so, likewise, in this transcription.

When the first U.S. census was taken in 1790, 13 heads of households named Sparks (or Sparkes) were recorded in South Carolina. (See page 10 of the June 1953 issue of the QUARTERLY.) We can be sure that many of the Sparkses appearing on the 1860 census of South Carolina were descendants of the 13 identified in 1790.

With the compilation that follows, we continue a major, long-term research and publication effort to transcribe for the SPARKS QUARTERLY the names and personal data for individuals named Sparks who appeared on the 1860 census of the United States. As we noted in the March 1995 issue of the QUARTERLY, where we published the record of Sparkses appearing on the 1860 census of Indiana, this will be a formidable task--our nation's population then totaled nearly 31½ million. Only through the use of indexes prepared by others could this compilation be possible. It was not until the September 1999 issue that we presented a record of Sparkses in another state in 1860, that being Texas. For the 1860 census of South Carolina, we have used an index compiled by Jonnie P. Arnold, published in 1982.

As most of our readers are probably aware, we have published a record of all the Sparkses found on extant census records preserved by the National Archives in Washington, D.C., from that of 1790 through that of 1850. A brief history of cen sus taking in the United States may be appropriate to include here before describing the nature of that taken in 1860, the year prior to the beginning of the Civil War, or, as those whose names we include here doubtless called it, the War Between the States, or the War of Northern Agression.

The first federal census was taken in 1790 in accordance with a provision in Article I, Section 2, of the U.S. Constitution. The purpose was to determine how the membership of the House of Representatives should be divided among the states, based on the population of each. This remains today as the basic reason for the census being taken every ten years, but questions have been added to the forms over the years in order to obtain additional statistical data. The marshals of the U.S. judicial districts were assigned responsibility for taking not only the 1790 census, but those that followed until 1850, when responsibility was assigned to the Department of Interior. It was not until 1960 that the U .S. mails were used to assist in the compilation.

It must be kept in mind when searching for genealogical information in census records that it was not until 1850 that anyone other than the head of each household was recorded by name, followed by the sex and age category of each member of his or her household.



The printed forms, called "schedules," provided for taking the 1860 census, mea sured 12+ by 17+ inches; they were printed "back-to-back," with lined spaces for 40 entries on each side. (There was a separate schedule for slaves.) Each page contained blank spaces for the township or town to be filled in, as well as the name of the county, the nearest post office, and the date on which the census taker made his call. Each page was also to be signed by the census taker.

In 1860, as in 1850, the basis for recording individuals continued to be by household within a designated geographical area. While the word "household" was often considered to be synonymous with "family," a "household" could include not only a spouse and children, it could include, also, employees, relatives needing a home, orphans learning a trade, etc. It was not until the census for 1880 that a space was provided to indicate the relationship of each household member to the head of that household.

The size of a census district was determined on the basis of a population of about 20,000. The census taker was directed to locate each household in his district, even if consisting of only one person, and therein to interview a responsible mem ber who could provide answers to the questions asked on the census form. Be sides recording the name of each household member, the census taker was directed to add his / her sex, color, age, and place of birth. The occupation of free males over age 15 was to be noted; that of employed women was also to be included, although census takers were often unsure whether the work of a housekeeper (wife or other adult female) qualified as an occupation. Real estate owners were required not only to report the value of their land, as they had for the 1850 census, but in 1860 they were to reveal, also, the value of their personal property, including any slaves that they owned. The marital states of adults was to be recorded, and marriages performed during the previous census year were to be noted. By "previous census year" was meant between June 1, 1859, and May 31, 1860.

It was assumed that the census taker would begin his canvas of the area assigned to him on June first, and on each day thereafter the information he recorded was to be as it had been on June first. Thus, if a household member died after June 1, 1860, he/she was to be included, as though the census taker had arrived on June first. All ages were to be calculated as of June 1, 1860. A baby born after June first was to be omitted, but if born within the previous census year (June 1, 1859, to May 31, 1860), he/she was to be included, of course, but with his/her age calculated in months.

No provision was made to identify on the census form the member of the house hold who provided the census taker with information, a fact that may account for some of the errors found on censuses. A wife might, for example, not recall where her husband had said he was born, or the value of his personal property.

Space was provided on the form (schedule) to report that a child had attended school during the past census year. Persons over 20 years of age who could not read and write any language were to be identified, as was anyone who was deaf and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, or a convict. The census taker in 1860, as in 1850, was directed to ask in each household whether a member had died during the past census year (June 1, 1859, to May 31, 1860); if so, information about him/her was to be recorded on a separate form called the "mortality schedule."

The census taker in 1860, as in 1850, was directed to assign a sucessive number to each "Dwelling House" in the order of his visitations. He was also to assign a number to each separate family or household if two or more were living in the same house. These numbers often assist today's researcher in determining how near neighbors and other households were living to each other.

Although a blank space was provided for a page number to be supplied for each schedule as it was completed, when these were assembled by state and county



at the Department of the Interior, an overall numbering system was used. It is these page numbers that we have copied in this transcription.

While the directions to census takers were fairly detailed, the Assistant Marshals as they were called differed in their degree of exactitude in following those directions. The quality of their handwriting varied greatly, of course, as did the blackness of their ink. In most instances, the census taker would copy the information he had obtained in each household after he returned to his home. There are known instances where a wife performed this task for her husband, and it was the final copies of the schedules that were usually sent to Washington. Each time a record copied, of course, there is opportunity for error.

In recording names of household members in 1860, the census taker was directed as follows: "The names are to be written, beginning with the father and mother; or if either, or both, be dead, begin with some other ostensible head of the family; to be followed, as far as practicable, with the name of the oldest child residing at home, then the next oldest, and so on to the youngest, then the other inmates, lodgers and boarders, laborers, domestics, and servants." Regretfully, because microfilmed copies of the originals must be used from which to transcribe census records today, some of the microfilming has been poorly done.

As will be seen in the following transcription of Sparks households, census takers usually recorded both the individual's first and last name, including middle initials, but some took the easy way out and gave only initials for first names. The spelling of names, especially unusual names, often reflects a census taker's use of his imagination. The name "Sparks" was common enough, however, that its spelling was usually written correctly, although the alternative "Spark" or "Sparkes" may or may not have been the choice of the family involved. We use question marks, enclosed in brackets, following a name for which the spelling is uncertain.

In copying the information found on the 1860 census for a household headed by a person named Sparks, your editor has included all members, whether or not their name(s) was/were Sparks. Likewise, where one or more persons named Sparks appear in households headed by someone with a different name, those entire house holds have also been transcribed (except where a Sparks is listed in a hotel or large institution with persons having a variety of surnames). The "other names" small households often provide clues for discovering family relationships.

In order to make effective use of our space, data from the 1860 census of South Carolina is presented here under each district in the following sequence: the geographical subdivision where given, e.g., the name of a town, the local post office, followed by the page number and the name of the census taker, with the date on which he recorded visiting the household. The line below these data begins with the number that he assigned to the dwelling house and, second, to the household (or family). This is followed by the individual names of members, and the age of each with his/her sex, (M or F). Census takers in 1860 were directed to leave blank the space provided for color "in all cases where the person is white," but "where the person is black, insert the letter B; if mulatto, insert M." The entry for "Profession, Occupation, or Trade" follows, if filled in, followed by the dollar value of real estate owned, and the value of personal property. This is followed by place of birth. Census takers were instructed here to write the state, territory, or country. They were permitted to abbreviate these place names, and we find a great variety of such abbreviations. For this transcription, we use the two-letter abbreviation for each state as has been established by the U.S. Post Office.

The answers to questions regarding whether individuals had been married within the previous census year, whether attended school in the previous year, whether able to read and write (if over the age of 20), and whether deaf and dumb, blind, etc., have been transcribed here in notes following each household.



A total of 118 persons named Sparks (including Spark and Sparkes) have been found on the 1860 census of South Carolina. There were 25 households headed by a Sparks, in which all but 12 of the 118 were listed. These 12 were living in 7 households headed by individuals not named Sparks.

Among the 25 Sparkses heading households, 7 owned slaves. (Slaves were counted in the census because each was computed to be 3/5 of a free person in determining the number of each state's Congressional delegation.) The record compiled for counting slaves was different from that for the free population, but here we have placed the list for each owner following that of the owner's own household. The information compiled for slaves did not include their names; the schedules provided to census takers included spaces for only the age, sex, and color (B for black and M for mulatto) of each. If a slave was a "fugitive from the state" or had been "manumitted," this fact was to be noted, as was for any that might be "deaf & dumb, blind, insane or idiotic." ("Manumitted" meant "freed from bondage.")

A record of the Sparkses found on the 1850 census of South Carolina was reported in the December 1986 issue of the SPARKS QUARTERLY, Whole No. 136, beginning on page 2993. A record of Sparkses found on earlier censuses for South Carolina has been published in the following issues: 1790 on page 10 of the issue for June 1953, Whole No. 2; those for 1800, 1810, 1820, and 1830 appeared in the issue for Sepember 1978, Whole No. 103, beginning on page 2032 and ending on page 2035; that for 1840 appeared in the issue for June 1971, Whole No. 74, pages 1413-14.

For the compilation of the present record of Sparkses found on the 1860 census of South Carolina, your editor has rented nineteen rolls of microfilm from the National Archives "Rental Program."

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Abbeville District, South Carolina --1860 Census

Post Office: Due West Corner

Page 152. Census taken by T. A. Rogers on September 10, 1860.

2244-2206 Wensole, Jno. H. 30 (M) Bricklayer ------- $2200 NC
Alley, Thos 20 (M)         " SC
Sparks, Thos. 15 (M) Day Laborer SC
Sparks, Miles 14 (M)    "          " SC
McCelvy, James A. 30 (M) Carpenter $1,000 $5000 SC
Bost, Harvey 23 (M)         " SC

[Note: We have identified neither the above Thomas Sparks nor Miles Sparks; although they were shown to have been born in South Carolina, their names have not been found on the 1850 census of South Carolina. In fact, no one named Sparks has been found in Abbeville District on the 1850 census. Considering their ages shown in 1860, we may wonder whether they might have been orphans.]



Anderson District, South Carolina --1860 Census

"The 42d Regiment," Post Office: Pierce Town
Page 315A. Census taken by M. L. McCoy on July 14, 1860.

993-943 Elrod, George G. 55 (M) Farmer $800 $400 SC
   "       Elizabeth 46 (F) SC
   "       Margaret 18 (F) SC
   "       Adam 16 (M) Farm laborer SC
   "       Philip 15 (M)    "           " SC
   "       George 13 (M) SC
   "       Mary 12 (F) SC
   "       Thomas   9 (M) SC
   "       Richard   8 (M) SC
   "       Jane   5 (F) SC
   "       Emma   2 (F) SC
Sparks, Tabitha 71 (F) ---------- $100 SC

[Note: Tabitha Sparks was shown as "Cannot read or write." The Elrod children named Adam, George, and Thomas were shown as "Attended school." Tabitha Sparks was the widow of Aaron (Aron) Sparks who had died between 1850 and 1860. When the 1850 census had been taken of Anderson District (see the QUARTERLY of December 1986, Whole No. 136, p.2993), Aaron and Tabitha Sparks were shown as the only persons named Sparks in Anderson District. Tabitha's age had been given as 60 in 1850; she was shown as a native of South Carolina in 1850 as well as in 1860. Aaron Sparks had been shown as 64 years old and a native of North Carolina in 1850. His occupation had been given as "Shoemaker." No one named Sparks appeared as head of a household on the 1840 census of Anderson District. We may wonder whether Tabitha was related to the Elrod family with whom she was living in 1860.]

Charleston District, South Carolina --1860 Census

Charleston City, 4th Ward. Post Office: Charleston

Page 336. Census taken on June 20, 1860, by E. P. Gaillard.

555-507 Mackie, E. 25 (F) (Black) SC
      "       Hariet 10 (F) (White) SC
      "       Cora   5 (F)    " SC
Sparks, Betty 26 (F)    " GA
Simons, Wm. F. 40 (M)    "      Printer SC
      "       Mary  10 (F)    " SC

[Note: We have been unable to identify Betty Sparks. When the 1850 census was taken in Charleston District and city, the only Sparks household found was that headed by Robert Sparks, age 39 (thus born about 1810), a carpenter, shown as having been born in South Carolina. His wife was shown in 1850 as Mary Sparks, age 39; living in their household (family) were Jane Sparks, age 16, and Thomas Sparks, age 13; both were natives of South Carolina.]



Charleston District, South Carolina, continued:

Charleston City, 6th Ward. P:st Office: Charleston

Page 430A. Census taken June 9, 1860, by John Zernow [?]

328-373 Thorn, Rebecca 38 (F) (Black) Dress maker  $2000  $1,000  SC
Sparks, Charles 12 (M)    " SC
      "      Thomas   7 (M)    " SC
      "      James   5 (M)    " SC
Carmand, Francis 14 (M)    " SC

 [Note: We have been unable to identify the three Sparks children in this household. We wonder whether Rebecca Thorn could have been the mother not only of the chil dren named Sparks, but of Francis Carmand as well. This was obviously a free, black, household.]

Darlington District, South Carolina --1860 Census

Post Office: Darlington Court House

Page 234. Census taken on June 1, 1860, by Wm. H. Wingate

234-234 Sparks, Jane 67 (F) $6,000 $44,600 Scot.
Lide, A. S. 23 (M) Planter $20,000 $50,478 SC
   "     M. M. 19 (F) MS

[Note: A. S. Lide and M. M. Lide were shown as having been married during the previous census year (between June 1, 1859, and May 31, 1860.) "Jane" was apparently a nickname for Janette. She was a widow of Alexander Sparks who had been shown as the only head of a household named Sparks in Darlington District when the 1850 census was taken. His gravestone in the Welch Neck Baptist Cemetery at Society Hill in Darlington District gives his date of birth as September 27, 1780, and the date of his death as January 29, 1857. His portrait, painted by William Harrison Scarbrough, was photographed for us by a descendant, Federal Judge John A. Jamison (now deceased); we reproduced it on the cover of the QUARTERLY for September 1992. His wife, Janette (McKearly) Sparks, a native of Scotland, had been born in 1791 and died in 1871. Alexander Sparks's parents had been Daniel Sparks (1740-1810), a native of Spottsylvania County, Virginia, and Martha (Pearce) Sparks (1762-1853). (See the QUARTERLY of December 1962, Whole No. 40, for a record of this branch of the Sparks family.)

[In his will, dated May 4, 1852, Alexander Sparks had left his wife, whom he named as "Jennet," his "mansion house at Society Hill" along with 100 acres of land, 20 slaves, the family carriage, carriage horses, and "my coachman, Robert," plus $20,000. As seen in the household enumerated on the 1860 census of Jane (or Janette) Sparks, age 67, she was credited with land valued at $6,000 and personal property valued at $44,600, much of which was doubtless based on the worth of her 24 slaves. It is probable that 23-year-old A. S. Lide was a grandson of Jane, her daughter, Elizabeth, having been married to Thomas P. Lide. Elizabeth, eldest child of Alexander and Janette (or Jane), was born in 1812 and died in 1878 according to her grave stone in the Welch Neck Cemetery. To her, Alexander left his 600-acre "Swiper Plantation" in Marlboro District, as well as a 2,000-acre tract called "Piney Woods on both sides of Camden Road, about 4 miles from Society Hill." To his daughter, Margaret Jane, wife of Col. Isaac D. Wilson, Alexander left the "Butler Plantation in the part of Welch Neck in Marlboro District."



Darlington District, South Carolina, continued:

[In his will dated May 4, 1852, Alexander Sparks also left to his daughter Margaret Jane, wife of Col. Isaac D. Wilson, "32 negroes--also the Plantation called Red Hill on the road leading to Marion Courthouse, about 7 miles below my Ferry over the Great Pee-Dee," comprising 3,000 acres. To his son, Samuel, he left "the Ferry Plantation & several tracts adjoining in Marlboro District known as the Hawes Tract, the Mclver, the Wilds & the Gonohoy tracts, also 200 acres in Chesterfield, called Dukeville, with Mill, etc. & 30 slaves." To his granddaughter, Alicia Mary Sparks, he left $25,000 "in trust, she being under 21, and the only child of my dec'd. son, Wm. A. Sparks." This son, William Alexander Sparks, had been born on October 4, 1817. He attended Columbia College and, in 1834, entered Yale University. He then studied medicine at the Medical College of South Carolina at Charleston and subsequent ly in Paris. President Polk appointed Dr. Sparks as Consul at Venice in 1845, where he died from Asiatic cholera on August 18, 1849. He had been married to Alicia Middleton (born in 1842), and their only child, Marie Alicia Sparks, had been born on March 25, 1848.

[The son of Alexander and Janette (or Jane) Sparks named Samuel Sparks, died on June 24, 1853, without issue, and on March 25, 1854, Alexander added a codicil to his will providing that the property he had devised to my said late beloved son, Samuel Sparks" be divided between his two sisters, Elizabeth Lide and Margaret Jane Wilson. He also added $5,000 to the trust fund for his granddaughter, Alicia Jane Sparks, and he added more slaves for his wife.

[Alexander Sparks also directed in his will that his two sons-in-law, Thomas P. Lide and Isaac D. Wilson, serve as executors of his estate. (See Darlington District Will Book 10, p.326 +.)

[Both of the Sparks daughters, with at least some of their children, appeared in households headed by their husbands on the 1860 census of Darlington District. The occupation of both Thomas Lide and Issac Wilson was recorded as "Planter," a title commonly used in the Southern States for a wealthy gentleman farmer, i.e., a large land and slave owner.

[Thomas P. Lide was shown (see p.390 of the Darlington census of 1860) as 50 years of age, with real estate valued at $51,000 and personal estate (mainly slaves) as $126,245. Because he owned property, also, in Marlboro, he was shown there as having land valued at $31,000 and additional slaves valued at $69,400. His family was listed with him only in Darlington District, however. His wife, Elizabeth D. Lide, was shown as 47 years old. There were then three children still at home: sons L. W. Lide, age 21, and W. R. Lide, age 15; also one daughter, E. C. Lide, age 10. All three were shown as having attended school in the previous census year. All had been born in South Carolina.

[We believe that it was an older son of Thomas P. and Elizabeth D. Lide named A. S. Lide, age 23, who was living with Jane Sparks (his grandmother) when the 1860 cen sus was taken. Married during the past year, A. S. Lide was already a rich man at age 23, with land valued at $20,000 and personal property (largely slaves) valued at $50,478 in Darlington District.

[Isaac D. Wilson, called "Col." on the 1860 census, was living with his wife, Margaret Jane Sparks, near Margaret's mother in Darlington District. Still living at home were whom we assume to have been the Wilsons' children: l. D. Wilson, age 25, and James A. Wilson, age 19; along with daughter M. E. Wilson, age 14. Isaac D. Wilson's wealth was recorded on the census in real estate, and $107,800 in personal estate in Darlington District, while in Marlboro District his land there was valued at $55,500



Darlington District, South Carolina, continued:

[and his personal property, primarily in slaves, was recorded as $78,600. With the parts of this plantation (with the Pee-Dee River dividing them), Col. Wilson owned a total of 181 slaves thereon, for whom he provided 10 slave houses.

[The slave schedule of Darlington District shows that the census taker, W. H. Wingate, prepared the listing of Jane Sparks's slaves on June 1, 1860 (p.314). The printed schedule used by all census takers in 1860 for reporting slaves asked for only the following data for each one: Age, Sex, Color (whether Black [B] or Mulatto [M]); age was to be estimated, if unknown; note was to be made if a slave was Deaf and dumb, Blind, Insane, or Idiotic. The names of slaves were not to be included. The number of "slave houses" provided by each slave owner was also to be recorded. There was no prescribed order for listing the slaves; it may have been by each of Jane Sparks's 5 slave houses that her 24 slaves were tabulated. They were given in the following order.

Age Sex Color
55 M B
18 M B
27 F B
  6 F B
  3 F B
26 F B
  7 F B
  4 F B
21 M B
18 M B
16 F B
  1 F B
  2 M B
31 M B
33 F B
11 M B
  8 F B
  6 M B
  3 F B
  1 F B

[At the end of the slave schedule for Darlington District, W. H. Wingate calculated and 2,892 slave houses that he had found a total of 11,863 slaves in his District, to domicile them.]

Greenville District, South Carolina 1860 Census

Town of Greenville. Post Office: Greenville. JAIL

Page 408A. Census taken by M. D. Dickey on October 16, 1860.

2155-2092 Gossett, Fielder 43 (M) Jailer $1000 $1800 SC
      "        Sabring 44 (F) SC
      "        John J. 18 (M) Blacksmith SC
      "        Rudolphus 16 (M) Bricklayer SC
      "        Louisa 12 (F) SC
      "        Mary A.   4 (F) SC
Wills, H. 65 (M) (See note below) SC
Oburier, George J. 33 (M)            " Ger.
Johnson, W. P. 22 (M) SC
Dalton, L. H. 38 (M) NC
Satterfield, Jackson 28 (M)            " SC
Daulton, Martha 35 (F)            " NC
Jennings, Jane 30 (F) SC
Sparks, B. O. 23 (M)            " SC
Hampton, James 24 (M)            " NC

[Scanning editor's note:  The last eleven persons above are shown on page 5651 of the  QUARTERLY.]



Greenville District, South Carolina--1860 Census, continued:

[Note: The reasons for some of the inmates being confined in the Greenville jail in 1860 were listed on the census as follows: Herald Wills, "Incendarys"; George J. Oburler, "Arson"; Jackson Satterfield, "Assault & Battery"; Martha Daulton, "Disturbing peace"; B. O. Sparks, "Keeping disorderly House;" and James Hampton, "Keeping disorderly House."  It appears that Fielder Gossett, the town's jailer, and his family had living quarters in the town's jail.]

Town of Greenville. Post Office: Greenville

 Page 420A. Census taken by M. D. Dickey on October 19, 1860.

2350-2350 McKay, Robt. 43 (M) Ordinary $13,800 $11,300 Scot.
      "      Octivia 34 (W) SC
      "      Eliza   7 (W) SC
Daniel, Lilly M. 21 (W) Music Teacher NC
      "      Sophy M. 18 (W) Music Teacher NC
Bowen, F. E. 30 (W) Tutoress GA
Adams, L. S.  20 (M) Student SC
Sparks, J. C. 18 (M) Student SC
  Harris, F. E. 21 (M) Student LA
Rice, Margaret 46 (W) Tutoress ------- #3,555 SC
   "     James A. 22 (M) Lawyer SC
Brownwell, George 15 (M) Student SC
Anderson, Charles 15 (M) Clerk Engl.
Grogan, John 23 (M) Carpenter $1,200 $800 SC

[Note: It appears that Robt. and Octavia McKay operated a rooming house in the town of Greenville and that J. C. Sparks was a roomer there while going to school. As seen, he and B. O. Sparks were the only persons named Sparks in Greenville District in 1860. Neither, however, has been found on the 1850 census of South Carolina; see the Sparkses found on the 1850 census of South Carolina in the SPARKS QUARTERLY of December 1986, Whole No. 137. The fact that both were listed only with their initials makes the identification of them even more difficult. On the 1850 census of Greenville District, however, there were two Sparks households, see page 2994. Both were headed by men named William Sparks.

[The elder William Sparks was shown as 40 years old in 1850 and a native of North Carolina. His wife, Lethia Sparks, a native of Virginia, was also age 40. Of the 7 children then living in their household, the first 5, ranging in age from 19 to 6, were reported as having been born in North Carolina, while the last two, age 7 and 4, had been born in South Carolina. When the 1860 census of South Carolina was



Greenville District, South Carolina, continued:

taken, this family was living in Spartanburg District: for further information see page 5658 of the present issue of the QUARTERLY.

[The younger William Sparks shown as heading a household on the 1850 census of
Greenville District (County), age 25, with wife Sarah, age 23, and children named
Lewis, age 4, and John, age 1, has not been found on the 1860 census of South

Laurens District, South Carolina--1860 Census

Post Office: Clinton

Page 308. Census taken by J. W. Motte on July 25, 1860.

1390-1362 Sparks, Drury  35 (M) Farmer ------ $125 SC
      "       S. 33 (F) SC
      "       E. A. 14 (F) SC
      "       T. T. 10 (M) SC
      "       S. J.   6 (F) SC
      "       A. E.   2 (F) SC

 Post Office: Martins Depot

Page 309. Census taken by J. W. Motte on July 25, 1860.

1407-1379 Sparks, T.  32 (M) Carpenter ------ $1,000 SC
      "       Mary 35 (F) SC
      "       Susan   7 (F) SC

Post Office: Reynosa

Page 324. Census taken by J. W. Motte on July 3, 1860.

1669-1632 Sparks, Garey 35 (M) Farmer SC
      "       Mary 30 (F) SC
      "       "Infant 3/12 (M) SC

Post Office: Tylersville

Page 335A Census taken by J. S. Motte on August 3, 1860.

1857-1821 Sparks, Jesse  46  (M)    [No occupaton  given) SC
      "       Elizabeth 26 (F) SC
      "       M. E. 12 (F) SC
      "       James 10 (M) SC
      "       John   8 (M) SC
      "       M. L.   4 (F) SC

Post Office: Cold Water

Page 350. Census taken by J. W. Motte on August 13, 1860.

2112-2050  Martin, J.  56 (M) Farmer $1,200 $4,000 SC
     "      M. 59 (F) SC
Sparks, M. M.   7 (F) [Attended school   previous year] SC



Laurens District, South Carolina--1860 Census, continued:

[Note: We believe that the four men named Sparks who headed households in Laurens District (County) when the 1860 census was taken were closely related to one another. We believe, also, that they were descendants of a Zachariah Sparks who had appeared on the 1830 census as head of a household there. In fact, it appears that there were as many as four men named Zachariah Sparks in as many generations who lived in the Laurens District area, the first having died during the American Revolution. (See the article entitled "Zachariah Sparks, died ca. 1781, of South Carolina," in the QUARTERLY of September 1961, Whole No. 35.) We believe he was the father of the Zachariah Sparks who transferred his membership from the Padgett's Creek Church in 1835 to the Cedar Springs Baptist Church located about 10 miles southeast from the town of Spartanburg. Zachariah was buried there. His gravestone gives his birth date as January 12, 1756, and his death date as April 19, 1852.

[When the 1850 census was taken in Laurens District, a William Sparks, age 60, a native of South Carolina, was shown as heading a household that included his wife, Sarah, age 50, as well as two daughters: Sarah, age 17, and Frances, age 14. This William Sparks, probably a son of the above Zachariah, died on April 9, 1859, a year prior to the taking of the 1860 census. Claude E. Sparks (mentioned earlier in this article) found William's date of death among the papers settling his estate in Laurens County. Those papers also reveal the names of five of the children of William and Sarah, including Drury Sparks who headed a household on the 1860 census of Laurens District. The others were Zachariah Sparks, probably named for his grandfather; Sarah Sparks, Jr., named for her mother; Fannie Sparks (nickname for Frances); and Elizabeth Sparks, who was married to John Mcllainey. (See the note following the 1860 census of Union District, page 5662, for further comment on this family.)

[The records of Padgett's Creek Baptist Church, as seen on the map on page 5660 of the present issue of the QUARTERLY, located in Union District near its boundary line with Laurens District, reveal that William Sparks and Sarah, his wife, had been received as members on the first Sunday in June 1832. Their;daughter, Elizabeth, was received as a member on August 18, 1832. In February 1842, William Sparks was "excluded" from membership, but he was restored in the following August. He was "excluded" again, however, in January 1844, the reason being "for thretning [sic] Wm. Lamb of being a moth in his garment as long as he lived there and wishing others in hell and for drinking to much." William Sparks was restored "to fellowship" in July 1848, and "was granted a letter of dismission the same day."

Lexington District, South Carolina--1860 Census

"The Vicinity of Steedmans." Post Office: Steedmans

Page 465. Census taken by B. l. Hayes on August 4, 1860.

1296-1248 Sparks, James (M) 60 Day Laborer Lexington
      "       Nancy (F) 59       " 
      "       Lustacia (F) 45       " 
      "       Salina (F) 14       " 
      "       James (M) 10       " 

[Note: This census taker, B. l. Hayes, recorded the name of the district in which each native of South Carolina had been born rather than simply the state. However, no one named Sparks has been found on any earlier census for Lexington District. We have no further information for this James Sparks and his family.]



Marlboro District, South CaroIina--186D Census

B ennettsville. Post Office: B ennettsville

Page 166A. Census taken by Jas. H. Bolton on July 16, 1860.

411-411  Sparks, A. D.  26  (M) Farmer $12,450 $36,382 SC
      "       Carrie D. 20 (F) SC
      "       Samuel   1 (M) SC

Page 181. Census taken by Jas. H. Bolton on August 24, 1860.

649-649 Sparks, Samuel 72  (M) Farmer $62,300 $186,010 SC
      "       Ann H.. 67 (F) SC
Keitt, Mrs. Sue 26  (F) SC
    "    Anna 2/12 (F)        Wash. DC

 [Note: Samuel Sparks, shown above, age 72, was a son of Daniel and Martha (Pearce) Sparks; he was a brother of Alexander Sparks (1780-1857) whose widow, Jane Sparks, was shown on the 1860 census of Darlington District, South Carolina. (See page 5648 of the present issue of the QUARTERLY.) A record of this branch of the Sparks family was published in the QUARTERLY of December 1962, Whole No. 40. Informa tion regarding Samuel Sparks may be found in that issue of the QUARTERLY, begin ning on page 693.

[Samuel Sparks was born on March 21, 1787, on his father's plantation located on the Welch Neck, in the bend of the river in what became Marlboro District in 1798. It was in Marlboro District that Samuel died on September 19, 1878. He had been married (first) to a Miss Allison. She died within a few years of their marriage after bearing a son named Charles Sparks, who also died young. On July 11, 1822, Samuel Sparks was married (second) to Ann Harry who had been born on June 22, 1793. Ann died in November 1870. She was shown, age 67, with Samuel, on the 1860 census, above.

[The "Mrs. Sue H. Keitt" and infant daughter, Anna Keitt, living with Samuel and Ann Sparks in 1860, were their daughter and granddaughter. Sue, a nickname for Sus anna, was the wife of Laurence Massillon Keitt, then a member of the United States Congress. He and Susannah were the parents of two daughters, but only the daughter named Anna survived childhood; she did not marry. Following is a brief biography of Laurence Keitt appearing in Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. III, 1888, p.504:

Keitt, Laurence Massilion, congressman, born in Orangeburg district, South Carolina, 4 Oct. 1824; d. in Richmond, Virginia, 4 June 1864. He was graduated at the College of South Carolina in 1843. and was admitted to the bar in 1845. He was in the legislature in 1848, was chosen to congress in 1852 as a state-rights Democrat, and served until his withdrawal in December, 1860, to become a delegate to the secession convention of South Carolina. He was a member of the provisional Confederate congress in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1861, and was conspicuous in forming the provisional and permanent Confederate constitution. In 1862 he joined the Confederate army as colonel of the 20th South Carolina volunteers, and was mortally wounded, at the head of his regiment, at the battle of Cold Harbor, dying in Richmond the next day.



Marlboro District, South Carolina--1860 Census, continued:

[Note, continued: Alexander Dottridge Sparks, recorded as "A. D. Sparks" by the census taker in 1860 (see previous page), was the only son of Samuel and Ann (Harry) Sparks. He was born in 1829 and died in 1894, spending his entire life in Marlboro District (County), except when performing military service. He was married on November 20, 1856, to Caroline Middleton Dudley, daughter of the Hon. Christopher William and Rebecca Powe (Robeson) Dudley. She had been born on June 3, 1838, at Bennettsville, South Carolina, and died there on June 23, 1911. Alexander D. Sparks was a planter on the Pee Dee River; he served in the Mexican War and held a commission in the U.S. Navy. Later, he served as an officer in the Confederate Army, organizing and equipping his own Company I, South Carolina Volunteers (Cavalry)." He and Rebecca were the parents of seven children, six of whom lived to have children of their own.

[According to the Slave Schedule of Marlboro District in 1860, Alexander D. Sparks then owned 33 slaves with 10 "slave houses." Each was identified only by age, sex, and color (but without names as directed) as follows:

Age Sex Color
60 M B
60 M B
60 M B
50  M B
39 M B
30 M B
26 M B
18 M B
15 M B
15 M B
23 M B
24 M B
40 F B
30 F B
22 F B
26 F B
17 F B
17 F B
14 F B
26 F B
12 M B
10 M B
  9 M B
  7 F B
  3 M B
  1 M B
  4 F B
  8 F B
  7 F B
  4 F B
  2 F B
  1 M B
  1 M B



Marlboro District, South Caroliiia--1860 Census, continued:

[While Alexander Dottridge Sparks owned a total of 33 slaves, his father, Samuel Sparks, owned 171, with 40 "Slave Houses," according to the slave schedule of 1860. As was true of his son's slaves, all of 'Samuel's were recorded as "Black," i.e. "B"; and to conserve space we record them here only according to their age and sex.

Slaves owned by Samuel Sparks (total:  67 males & 104 females)

Age Sex Age Sex Age Sex Age Sex
60 M 17 M   1 F 50 F
34 M 65 M 18 F 22 F
30 M 40 M 16 F 16 F
32 M 36 M 14 F twin 18 F
26 M 31 M 14 F twin 14 F
18 M   1 M 31 F 12 F
  2 M 22 M 15 F 35 F
18 M 20 M 11 F 16 F
  7 M   3 M   9 F 35 F
  1 M   1 M   4 F 15 F
  1 M 55 M   2 F   8 F
  4 M 22 M 57 F 14 F
10 M 14 M 34 F 30 F
  4 M 12 M 16 F 60 F
  3 M 10 M 14 F 32 F
40 M 28 M 12 F 18 F
28 M 23 M   3 F 32 F
13 M 49 M 3/12 F 18 F
  1 M   4 M 28 F 32 F
15 M 36 M   7 F 18 F
19 M 35 M   4 F 32 F
17 M   2 M 526 F   7 F
  3 M 2/12 M 35 F   5 F
  1 M 55 F 36 F   3 F
10 M 38 F 15 F   1 F
  9 M 36 F 33 F   6 F
6/12 M 28 F   6 F 40 F
17 M 24 F 60 F   5 F
39 M 22 F 60 F 18 F
21 M 20 F 26 F 45 F
  5 M 15 F 11 F 26 F
  3 M 13 F 23 F 18 F
  6 M 11 F   2 F   2 F
  4 M   9 F 18 F 49 F
15 M   7 F 30 F 26 F
  4 M 37 F   8 F   1 F
15 M   1 F   1 F 1/12 F
  7 M 20 F 28 F   2 F
24 M 4/12 F 11 F 16 F
22 M 18 F 22 F
35 M 16 F 11 F
69 M   8 F 22 F
1 6/12 M   7 F   4 F
16 M   4 F 69 F

Total Slaves: 171        Males:  67    Females: 104

(This household continued on following page.)

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Scanned by Harold E. Sparks, Formatted and edited by James J. Sparks